Les technologies de paiement au Canada

L’un des volets du mandat de Paiements Canada consiste à stimuler et à faciliter l’innovation au sein de l’écosystème des paiements canadien. À cet effet, nous nous efforçons de comprendre et de décrire la globalité de l’écosystème et de la chaîne de valeur des paiements électroniques en tenant compte des avancées passées et futures, de manière à bâtir un cadre de référence pour les politiques, la réglementation, les investissements et l’innovation en lien avec les paiements.

Une entreprise de technologies de paiement est une organisation qui met au point des technologies facilitant le transfert électronique de valeur.

À quoi servent-elles?

Les entreprises de technologies de paiement sont essentielles au dynamisme de l’économie canadienne. Mieux les paiements se portent, mieux la valeur canadienne circule. Le Canada est depuis longtemps un chef de file des technologies de paiement, historiquement porté par ses institutions financières et les réseaux de paiement mondiaux. Mais aujourd’hui, une multitude de nouveaux acteurs, comme des jeunes pousses ou des vétérans d’autres secteurs, apportent une valeur notable à l’écosystème et, au bout du compte, à l’économie canadienne.

L’amélioration des paiements nécessite des compétences particulières, des travaux de recherche inédits, des investisseurs résolus, des politiques publiques ciblées et une réglementation prudente, d’où l’importance d’approcher les technologies de paiement dans une optique de réflexion, de conception, de promotion et de diffusion qui diffère de celle adoptée pour les autres technologies financières.

Étant donné que les technologies évoluent rapidement et que les acteurs du secteur des paiements se multiplient, nous nous devons de considérer notre écosystème d’un œil neuf, en fondant son organisation sur les fonctions et les principes plutôt que sur les technologies ou les opérations.

La suite de cet article est en anglais seulement.


A Functional View of Payments 

Beneath the simple notion of a payment—transferring value from one party to another—is a deeply intricate network of organizations, technologies, regulations and interests. While Payments Canada plays a critical role, so many other actors are essential for the safety, flexibility, speed and convenience of Canadian payments.   

There are three high-level groupings of roles in the payments ecosystem—Transaction, Enabling, and Supporting. Within Transaction, there are four layers a payment travels through on its journey from decision-to-purchase to finality—as well as the Adoption Layer, which must be used at least once for a specific payment type by both the payor and payee. Each layer is filled with many actors that perform a needed function. While it’s helpful to distinguish the essential roles in a payment, in many cases, we find organizations and their technologies spanning multiple layers—either discretely or as a contiguous part of the value chain.  

ADOPTION EXPERIENCE CONNECTION LEDGER BALANCE

(PRE-TRANSACTION)
The process of enrolment in a payment type that establishes the capacity to make payments (as a payor) or accept payments (as a payee). Adoption takes place distinctly from a transaction, and is required before a payment can take place. 

Where a payor and payee interact with a payment. This includes all activities from the decision to transact, to the selection of a payment type and initiation of the exchange, as well as notifications throughout the value chain and the subsequent reconciliation of the payment.

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Where the need, and ability, to transfer value is communicated to and from a ledger. Payment requests are both transmitted and confirmed (or denied) by actors in this layer.

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The accounts in which value is tracked, where value is debited or credited during a transaction. These can range from traditional bank and credit card accounts to the distributed ledgers of cryptocurrencies.

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When transactions don’t occur in real-time, post-transaction activity is conducted that transfers funds between or within ledger providers or owners to adjust positions and create payment finality. This is typically referred to as ‘clearing and settlement.'

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The payments value chain is how data travels through the ecosystem to perform a transaction. That data includes the basic transaction information that exists in all exchanges today—such as date, type, amount, destination and account number. However, additional information can often travel along with, or separately from, the basic payment data. This can be information about the goods or services procured, the context of a transaction, or any other information a party may wish to send through a payment message. The coming adoption of the ISO 20022 payment messaging standard in Canada, and globally, will make data-rich payments far more common in the future. (Learn more about ISO 20022 here.)

Each Transaction Layer includes two key functions:

EXPERIENCE CONNECTION LEDGER BALANCE

1) Facilitate payment initiation

 2) Reconcile the payment for either or both the payee and payor

1) Initiate the communication of the need to transfer value

2) Confirm that value can be transferred

1) Debit the value from a ledger

2) Credit the value to a ledger (note: the sequence depends on if the payments is debit pull or credit push)

1) Clear (or net) the positions of both ledger providers

2) Settle the positions of both ledger providers to finalize a payment

In addition to the Transaction Layers there are other essential functions that enable payments. These functions provide support across the value chain.

Data & ID: Various directory, registry, data analysis and digital ID services that help to improve the safety and convenience of a transaction. With emergence of data-rich payments and digital ID technologies, this layer is growing in relevance.  

Governance: Various bodies that provide laws, rules, guidelines and policies that govern payments.

Supporting Functions

Finally, the ecosystem relies on Supporting Functions that include—but are not limited to—Artificial Intelligence (AI), Third-Party Developers, Security, Compliance, Anti-Fraud and Loyalty Programs.